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Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) – Know The Causes & Symptoms!

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By Dr. Saurabh Mishra , Urology

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia is a common condition among older men. This is also known as prostate gland enlargement. It is a bothersome condition that can lead to blockage of the bladder, problems in urinary tract and complications of the kidney. From medication to therapy, surgery to alternative treatments, there exists an array of treatments to cure BPH. A doctor typically determines the course of treatment based on the age, size of the prostate and overall health condition.

The severity of symptoms varies from person to person. However, symptoms worsen as time progresses. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, (BPH) symptoms include frequent urination, increased urination during the night, uneven flow of urine, strain in urine, inability to empty the urine bladder, dribbling while urination, discomfort and pain during urination, infection of the urinary tract, blood in urine, etc. The size of the prostate need not dictate whether it’s the initial or later stage of BPH. While patients with minor prostate enlargement face complicated symptoms, patients with later stages face less discomfort.

Causes of BPH-
While the exact reason of BPH is not known, some of the causes identified by researchers over the years include stones in kidney or bladder, bladder or prostate cancer, narrow urethra and infection of the urinary tract. There also possibilities that scarring of the urinary bladder resulting from a previous surgery, prostate inflammation and nerve related problems can lead to BPH.

Risk Factors-
Risk factors pertaining to BPH include the following:

  1. Family history: A blood relative suffering from benign prostatic hyperplasia, increases the chance of an individual of getting BPH condition.
  2. Aging: Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia hardly portrays any symptoms for individuals who are less than 40. It is estimated that one-third of men tend to experience severe to moderate symptoms by the age of 60. Half of all men tend to show symptoms by the age of 80.
  3. Heart diseases and Diabetes: Patients suffering from heart diseases, diabetes and those using beta blockers have an increased risk of developing this condition.
  4. Ethnicity: People of Asian origin are less likely to suffer from BPH, as compared to black and white men. Black men are more likely to show symptoms under the age of 40, as compared to white men.
  5. Lifestyle: An incautious lifestyle involving heavy drinking, lack of exercise, consumption of processed foods make a person more vulnerable to BPH.


  1. The treatment is based on various factors. Medications include alpha blockers, tadalafil, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, combination drug therapy, etc.
  2. Surgical options include minimally invasive surgery, Transurethral resection of the prostate, Transurethral microwave thermotherapy and Transurethral incision of the prostate.
  3. There are other treatments available such as laser therapy, embolization, prostate lift, robot-assisted prostatectomy, etc.
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